The use of established methods for CVD risk assessment, such as the Pooled Cohort Equations (PCEs)—which are based on the presence of several traditional CVD risk factors—may not allow for evaluation of a true lifetime exposure risk, or the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis. Because of this, there is a need for additional biomarkers and methods to improve CVD risk stratification for certain at-risk patients. The utility of several biomarkers in predicting CVD risk has been demonstrated in several studies, which have identified important blood-based risk factors, such as cardiac troponin T, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Additionally, coronary artery calcium (CAC) score—which measures the amount of calcium in the artery walls due to atherosclerosis—has been a reliable measure for risk of adverse events including heart attack and stroke. In the 2018 ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines, the utilization of CAC score is recommended to risk-stratify certain patients with borderline or intermediate risk. This workshop will address the utility of CAC and biomarkers in CVD risk assessment based on the recently emerging evidence and guideline recommendations.