Differences in Heart Structure and Function Among Athletes

Cardiologists are well aware of the fact that regular exercise can change the structure and function of the heart – the left ventricle (LV) in particular. Aerobic exercise in particular, places high demands on the left ventricle, requiring considerable oxygen delivery to working muscles. Athletes typically exhibit larger and stronger left ventricles, which function more […]

Comparing Athlete’s Heart and Structural Heart Disease

In many endurance athletes, increased left ventricular (LV) size, a mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and lower resting heart rate develop as an adaptation to strenuous exercise. These non-pathological changes are termed as ‘athlete’s heart’, a term first used in the medical literature in 1953, although the first description of athletes with enlarged […]


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